United Nations Paris Agreement Citation
While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  The implementation of the agreement by all the Member States combined will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S.
President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   View all Google Scholar quotes for this article. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Although the NDC of each contracting party is not legally binding, the contracting parties have a legal obligation to monitor their progress through expert technical reviews in order to assess the performance towards the NDC and to find ways to strengthen ambitions.  Article 13 of the Paris Agreement establishes an “enhanced transparency framework for measures and support” that sets harmonised monitoring, reporting and verification (LVR) requirements. As a result, industrialized and developing countries must report every two years on their efforts to combat climate change, and all parties will be subject to technical and peer review.  Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The agreement stated that it would only enter into force (and thus become fully effective) if 55 countries responsible for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)  ratify, approve or accede to the agreement.
  On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016.